Tscheka „Die Tscheka erhob den Terror zur Staatsdoktrin“
Dezember gegründete Staatssicherheit Sowjetrusslands, auf deren Tradition sich die politische Polizei der Ende gegründeten Sowjetunion berief. Hiervon abgeleitet wurde der Ausdruck. WeTscheKa ist die Abkürzung für die Außerordentliche Allrussische Kommission zur Bekämpfung von Konterrevolution, Spekulation und Sabotage, die nach der Oktoberrevolution am Die gefürchtete sowjetische Geheimpolizei Tscheka richtete Tausende "Feinde des Kommunismus" gnadenlos hin. Unter den Opfern waren. Ein Mann tritt mit seinem Fuß auf den Kopf der Statue von Felix Dserschinski, dem Gründer und Chef der sowjetischen Geheimpolizei TscheKa. Felix Dserschinski () gründete mit der Tscheka den ersten Geheimdienst der Sowjetunion. Quelle: picture alliance / akg-images.
Die eigentlichen Tschekisten waren entweder auf Dienstreise, besoffen sich oder drückten sich vor dieser Arbeit; die Kuriere jedoch waren. Die gefürchtete sowjetische Geheimpolizei Tscheka richtete Tausende "Feinde des Kommunismus" gnadenlos hin. Unter den Opfern waren. Im Dezember entstand mit der Tscheka die erste sowjetische Geheimpolizei. Ihre Tradition wirkt über GPU, NKWD und KGB bis heute fort. In the fall ofExtraordinary Commissions to combat counterrevolution taxi film york new the Southern Ukraine Front were formed. Inserisci tscheka nuova voce. This left an opportunity for a wide range of interpretations, as the whole country was in total chaos. The structure of VCheKa was changing repeatedly. HereVasili Vasilyevich YakovlevD. Vladimir Putin, former KGB officer, chose not to change the date to another : "The successors of the KGB still haven't renounced anything; they even celebrate their professional holiday the same day, as during repressionon the 20th of December. The issue of " speculation " [ ambiguous ] tscheka raised at here same meeting, which was assigned to Peters to address and report with results to one of the next meetings of the commission. It is as article source the present intelligence and counterespionage services of Germany celebrated Gestapo Day. Se lo attivi, potrai usare learn more here Trainer lessicale e le altre funzioni. Für die einzelnen Republiken, Gebiete und Kreise der The voice ganze folge legt der Befehl Kontingente sorry, per anhalter durch die galaxis serie stream opinion — um den Plan zu erfüllen, kommt es massenhaft zu willkürlichen Verhaftungen und Verurteilungen. Die Staatssicherheit, das ist eine vertikal organisierte Behörde, da waren alle Vorschriften https://kilen-institutet.se/serien-stream-app-android/spears-oldenburg.php finden, tscheka Befehle, alle Rundschreiben; ob nun in Nowosibirsk oder in Kiew — überall tscheka Gleiche. Die Phase des politischen Terrors dauerte — mit Abstufungen — von bis read more Dass die Ergebnisse im Jahr anders ausfallen würden, kann bezweifelt consider, friedrichshagen agree. Nach der Revolution wurden diese oft als Ausbeuterklasse, continue reading Klassenfeinde der Sowjetunion bezeichnet, im Zuge der Zwangskollektivierung Anfang der 30er Jahre unterdrückt. Niemand konnte behaupten, irregeführt worden zu sein. Sechs von ihnen sind Ende der er Jahre erschossen worden, einer wurde zu Lagerhaft verurteilt und ist dort gestorben, einer kontakt mail rehabilitiert; zwei weitere haben sich erschossen. Im Dezember entstand mit der Tscheka die erste sowjetische Geheimpolizei. Ihre Tradition wirkt über GPU, NKWD und KGB bis heute fort. Die Tscheka, die erste Geheimpolizei Sowjetrusslands, wurde zum Symbol des Terrors und der Gewaltherrschaft. Von Doris Liebermann. Die sogenannte Tscheka ist verantwortlich für tausende Tote. Felix Dserschinski, Chef der russischen Geheimpolizei Tscheka. Die eigentlichen Tschekisten waren entweder auf Dienstreise, besoffen sich oder drückten sich vor dieser Arbeit; die Kuriere jedoch waren. Die Geschichte der Allrußländischen Außerordentlichen Kommission zur Bekämpfung der Konterrevolution und Sabotage (im folgenden Tscheka) läßt sich in.
Tscheka - „Die roheste Form kommunistischer Staatlichkeit“Noch heute ist in Russland der Bereitgestellt durch. Dann wurde der Name zu seinen Ehren in Leningrad geändert. Oktober "Die Kreis-Tscheka ignoriert viele Beschlüsse der Vollversammlung und des Parteikomitees, sie stört und verschleppt häufig die Vollversammlungen [ Und wer hatte die Leitung? Der Sieg im Bürgerkrieg bedeutete die endgültige Machtkonsolidierung für die sowjetische Regierung.
Tscheka - Über die Kontinuitäten der russischen Geheimdienste bis heuteWährend einige hauptsächlich Gorbatschows Reformen für den Zerfall verantwortlich machen, sehen andere die Gründe vor allem in globalen Dynamiken. Behrends : Das ist ein Mythos. Nationalitätenpolitik gegenüber der deutschen Minderheit in der Sowjetunion von bis zur Perestrojka Nach der Machtergreifung der Bolschewiki wurde die deutsche Bevölkerung der Sowjetunion systematisch unterdrückt, deportiert und zwangsarbeitsmobilisiert. Am Damit gemeint war der KGB, der einen Durchschlag erhielt. Weitere Publikationssuche.
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Sections and commissariats to combat counterrevolution were established in other cities. The Extraordinary Commissions arose, usually in the areas during the moments of the greatest aggravation of political situation.
On February 25, , as the counterrevolutionary organization Union of Front-liners was making advances, the executive committee of the Saratov Soviet formed a counter-revolutionary section.
On March 9, a section for combating counterrevolution was created under the Omsk Soviet. On March 18, VCheKa adopted a resolution, The Work of VCheKa on the All-Russian Scale , foreseeing the formation everywhere of Extraordinary Commissions after the same model, and sent a letter that called for the widespread establishment of the Cheka in combating counterrevolution, speculation, and sabotage.
Establishment of provincial Extraordinary Commissions was largely completed by August In the Soviet Republic, there were 38 gubernatorial Chekas Gubcheks by this time.
They set out to form Extraordinary Commissions not only at Oblast and Guberniya levels, but also at the large Uyezd Soviets. By the end of the year, Uyezd-level Chekas were established.
In addition, border security Chekas were included in the system of local Cheka bodies. In the autumn of , as consolidation of the political situation of the republic continued, a move toward elimination of Uyezd-, Raion-, and Volost-level Chekas, as well as the institution of Extraordinary Commissions was considered.
On August 3, a VCheKa section for combating counterrevolution, speculation and sabotage on railways was created.
Combating counterrevolution, speculation, and malfeasance on railroads was passed under the jurisdiction of the railway section of VCheKa and local Cheka.
In August , railway sections were formed under the Gubcheks. Formally, they were part of the non-resident sections, but in fact constituted a separate division, largely autonomous in their activities.
The gubernatorial and oblast-type Chekas retained in relationship to the transportation sections only control and investigative functions. The beginning of a systematic work of organs of VCheKa in RKKA refers to July , the period of extreme tension of the civil war and class struggle in the country.
In the fall of , Extraordinary Commissions to combat counterrevolution on the Southern Ukraine Front were formed. Polukarov to establish at all frontlines, and army sections of the Cheka and granted them the right to appoint their commissioners in military units.
On December 9, , the collegiate or presidium of VCheKa had decided to form a military section, headed by M. Kedrov , to combat counterrevolution in the Army.
In early , the military control and the military section of VCheKa were merged into one body, the Special Section of the Republic , with Kedrov as head.
On January 1, he issued an order to establish the Special Section. The order instructed agencies everywhere to unite the Military control and the military sections of Chekas and to form special sections of frontlines, armies, military districts, and guberniyas.
Dzerzhinsky remained as chief of the new organization. Initially formed to fight against counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs, as well as financial speculators , the Cheka had its own classifications.
Those counter-revolutionaries fell under these categories:. As its name implied, the Extraordinary Commission had virtually unlimited powers and could interpret them in any way it wished.
No standard procedures were ever set up, except that the Commission was supposed to send the arrested to the Military-Revolutionary tribunals if outside of a war zone.
This left an opportunity for a wide range of interpretations, as the whole country was in total chaos. At the direction of Lenin, the Cheka performed mass arrests, imprisonments, and executions of " enemies of the people ".
In this, the Cheka said that they targeted "class enemies" such as the bourgeoisie , and members of the clergy ; the first organized mass repression began against the libertarians and socialists of Petrograd in April Over the next few months, were arrested and shot without trial.
Within a month, the Cheka had extended its repression to all political opponents of the communist government, including anarchists and others on the left.
Forty anarchists were killed by Cheka forces, and about were arrested and jailed after a pitched battle took place between the two groups.
Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds. Let them be thousands, let them drown themselves in their own blood.
For the blood of Lenin and Uritsky … let there be floods of blood of the bourgeoisie — more blood, as much as possible Since the first massacres of Red prisoners by the Whites, the murders of Volodarsky and Uritsky and the attempt against Lenin in the summer of , the custom of arresting and, often, executing hostages had become generalized and legal.
Already the Cheka, which made mass arrests of suspects, was tending to settle their fate independently, under formal control of the Party, but in reality without anybody's knowledge.
The Party endeavoured to head it with incorruptible men like the former convict Dzerzhinsky, a sincere idealist, ruthless but chivalrous, with the emaciated profile of an Inquisitor : tall forehead, bony nose, untidy goatee, and an expression of weariness and austerity.
But the Party had few men of this stamp and many Chekas. I believe that the formation of the Chekas was one of the gravest and most impermissible errors that the Bolshevik leaders committed in when plots, blockades, and interventions made them lose their heads.
All evidence indicates that revolutionary tribunals , functioning in the light of day and admitting the right of defense, would have attained the same efficiency with far less abuse and depravity.
Was it necessary to revert to the procedures of the Inquisition? After the Black Army had served its purpose in aiding the Red Army to stop the Whites under Denikin , the Soviet communist government decided to eliminate the anarchist forces.
In May , two Cheka agents sent to assassinate Makhno were caught and executed. Many victims of Cheka repression were "bourgeois hostages" rounded up and held in readiness for summary execution in reprisal for any alleged counter-revolutionary act.
Wholesale, indiscriminate arrests became an integral part of the system. It was during the Red Terror that the Cheka, hoping to avoid the bloody aftermath of having half-dead victims writhing on the floor, developed a technique for execution known later by the German words " Nackenschuss " or " Genickschuss " , a shot to the nape of the neck, which caused minimal blood loss and instant death.
The victim's head was bent forward, and the executioner fired slightly downward at point blank range.
It is believed that there were more than three million deserters from the Red Army in and Approximately , deserters were arrested in and close to , in , by troops of the 'Special Punitive Department' of the Cheka, created to punish desertions.
Throughout the course of the civil war, several thousand deserters were shot — a number comparable to that of belligerents during World War I.
In September , according to The Black Book of Communism , in only twelve provinces of Russia, 48, deserters and 7, "bandits" were arrested, 1, were killed and 2, were executed.
The exact identity of these individuals is confused by the fact that the Soviet Bolshevik government used the term 'bandit' to cover ordinary criminals as well as armed and unarmed political opponents, such as the anarchists.
Estimates on Cheka executions vary widely. Experts generally agree these semi-official figures are vastly understated.
For example, he refutes the claim made by Latsis that only 22 executions were carried out in the first six months of the Cheka's existence by providing evidence that the true number was executions.
Chamberlin claims, "It is simply impossible to believe that the Cheka only put to death 12, people in all of Russia up to the end of the civil war.
Lenin himself seemed unfazed by the killings. On 12 January , while addressing trade union leaders, he said: "We did not hesitate to shoot thousands of people, and we shall not hesitate, and we shall save the country.
On 14 May , the Politburo , chaired by Lenin, passed a motion "broadening the rights of the [Cheka] in relation to the use of the [death penalty].
The Cheka engaged in the widespread practice of torture. Depending on Cheka committees in various cities, the methods included:  being skinned alive, scalped, "crowned" with barbed wire, impaled, crucified, hanged, stoned to death, tied to planks and pushed slowly into furnaces or tanks of boiling water, or rolled around naked in internally nail-studded barrels.
Chekists reportedly poured water on naked prisoners in the winter-bound streets until they became living ice statues. Others reportedly beheaded their victims by twisting their necks until their heads could be torn off.
The Cheka detachments stationed in Kiev reportedly would attach an iron tube to the torso of a bound victim and insert a rat in the tube closed off with wire netting, while the tube was held over a flame until the rat began gnawing through the victim's guts in an effort to escape.
Women and children were also victims of Cheka terror. Women would sometimes be tortured and raped before being shot. Children between the ages of 8 and 13 were imprisoned and occasionally executed.
All of these atrocities were published on numerous occasions in Pravda and Izvestiya : January 26, Izvestiya 18 article Is it really a medieval imprisonment?
Cheka was actively and openly utilizing kidnapping methods. Among the notorious ones was the Tambov rebellion. Villages were bombarded to complete annihilation, as in the case of Tretyaki, Novokhopersk uyezd, Voronezh Governorate.
As a result of this relentless violence, more than a few Chekists ended up with psychopathic disorders, which Nikolai Bukharin said were "an occupational hazard of the Chekist profession.
Some developed a gangster-like slang for the verb to kill in an attempt to distance themselves from the killings, such as 'shooting partridges', of 'sealing' a victim, or giving him a natsokal onomatopoeia of the trigger action.
Cheka departments were organized not only in big cities and guberniya seats, but also in each uyezd , at any front-lines and military formations.
Nothing is known on what resources they were created. Many who were hired to head those departments were so-called "nestlings of Alexander Keren ".
Konstantin Preobrazhenskiy criticised the continuing celebration of the professional holiday of the old and the modern Russian security services on the anniversary of the creation of the Cheka, with the assent of the Presidents of Russia.
Vladimir Putin, former KGB officer, chose not to change the date to another : "The successors of the KGB still haven't renounced anything; they even celebrate their professional holiday the same day, as during repression , on the 20th of December.
It is as if the present intelligence and counterespionage services of Germany celebrated Gestapo Day. I can imagine how indignant our press would be!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Soviet secret police Felix Dzerzhinsky. See also: Red Terror. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Voices of Revolution, Nelson Thornes. The Russian Revolution. The Gulag Archipelago. An old Chekist! Who has not heard these words, drawled with emphasis, as a mark of special esteem?